Changes in Prostate-specific Antigen Screening after the 2018 United States Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and Through the COVID-19 Pandemic
Qian Z, Chen X, Cole AP, Abdollah F, Choueiri TK, Kibel AS, Lipsitz SR, Iyer HS, and Trinh QD. Changes in Prostate-specific Antigen Screening after the 2018 United States Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations and Through the COVID-19 Pandemic. Eur Urol Oncol 2023.
Eur Urol Oncol
We analyzed trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer, with a focus on the impact of the 2018 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations and the COVID-19 outbreak. Using National Health Interview Survey data, we performed difference-in-difference (DID) analyses to examine the PSA screening trend for men aged 55-69 yr, the target population in the 2018 USPSTF update, with men aged >69 yr included as the reference and adjustment for sociodemographic factors. We found that PSA screening increased for men aged 55-69 yr (+4.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-7.5%) or >69 yr (+6.5%, 95% CI 2.7-10.4%) in 2019 (after the 2018 recommendations) in comparison to 2015. There was a decrease in PSA screening for men aged 55-69 yr in 2021 in comparison to 2019 (after the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020) of -3.1% (95%CI -0.4% to -5.8%). Adjusted DID analysis revealed no significant variations in the rate of change in PSA screening between the two age groups following both events. Despite its observational nature, our design mitigates major challenges in inferring causal relationships. Our results suggest a causal relationship between the 2018 screening guidelines and an increase in screening rates for men aged 55-69 yr. Conversely, they also indicate that preventive care disruptions related to COVID-19 may have induced deceleration or potentially reversal of these advances. PATIENT SUMMARY: We used data from a large national survey to study the rate of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer in the USA in response to the 2018 United States Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and to the COVID-19 pandemic. We found an increase in PSA screening in 2019 among men aged 55-69 yr, the target population in the 2018 recommendations, as well as men aged >69 yr. However, this increase was reduced after the COVID-19 outbreak. It remains to be seen how PSA screening continues to change as the world recovers from COVID-19.
ePub ahead of print