Commercial Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) Testing is Not Vulnerable to Incidental Alcohol Exposure in Pregnant Women
Ondersma SJ, Beatty JR, Rosano TG, Strickler RC, Graham AE, and Sokol RJ. Commercial ethyl glucuronide (etg) and ethyl sulfate (ets) testing is not vulnerable to incidental alcohol exposure in pregnant women. Subst Use Misuse 2016; 51(1):126-130.
Substance use & misuse
BACKGROUND: Ethyl Glucoronide (EtG) and Ethyl Sulfate (EtS) have shown promise as biomarkers for alcohol and may be sensitive enough for use with pregnant women in whom even low-level alcohol use is important. However, there have been reports of over-sensitivity of EtG and EtS to incidental exposure to sources such as alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Further, few studies have evaluated these biomarkers among pregnant women, in whom the dynamics of these metabolites may differ.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated whether commercial EtG-EtS testing was vulnerable to high levels of environmental exposure to alcohol in pregnant women.
METHODS: Two separate samples of five nurses-one pregnant and the other postpartum, all of whom reported high levels of alcohol-based hand sanitizer use-provided urine samples before and 4-8 hours after rinsing with alcohol-based mouthwash and using hand sanitizer. The five pregnant nurses provided urine samples before, during, and after an 8-hour nursing shift, during which they repeatedly cleansed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer (mean 33.8 uses). The five postpartum nurses used hand sanitizer repeatedly between baseline and follow-up urine samples.
RESULTS: No urine samples were positive for EtG-EtS at baseline or follow-up, despite use of mouthwash and-in the pregnant sample-heavy use of hand sanitizer (mean of 33.8 uses) throughout the 8-hour shift.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Current, commercially available EtG-EtS testing does not appear vulnerable to even heavy exposure to incidental sources of alcohol among pregnant and postpartum women.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Biomarkers; Disinfectants; Ethanol; Female; Glucuronates; Hand Sanitizers; Humans; Mouthwashes; Pregnancy; Sulfuric Acid Esters; Young Adult