The Effect of Subcutaneous German Cockroach Immunotherapy (SCIT) on Nasal Allergen Challenge (NAC) and Cockroach-specific Antibody Responses Among Urban Children and Adolescents
Zoratti E, Wood R, O G, Pongracic J, Makhija M, Hershey GK, Sherenian M, Gill M, Gruchalla R, Chambliss J, Liu A, Kattan M, Busse P, Bacharier L, Rivera-Spoljaric K, Sheehan W, Jackson D, Gergen P, Togias A, Calatroni A, Visness C, Cho K, Sette A, Altman M, and Busse W. The Effect of Subcutaneous German Cockroach Immunotherapy (SCIT) on Nasal Allergen Challenge (NAC) and Cockroach-specific Antibody Responses Among Urban Children and Adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2023; 151(2):AB320.
J Allergy Clin Immunol
Rationale: Cockroach allergy contributes to asthma and rhinitis morbidity among many urban children. Treatment with cockroach SCIT could be beneficial.
Methods: 8-17 year-old children with mild-moderate asthma from 11 urban sites participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled SCIT trial using non-standardized, glycerinated German cockroach extract. Positive cockroach skin tests, cockroach-specific IgE, and nasal challenge response with total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) ≥6 or maximal sneeze scores of 3 during a graded NAC were required for enrollment. Following dose escalation, 0.4 ml of undiluted extract was targeted for maintenance dosing (∼7 mcg Bla g2/dose). The primary endpoint was change in NAC-induced mean TNSS from baseline to one year post randomization. Changes in cockroach-specific IgE (CRsIgE) and IgG4 (CRsIgG4) were also analyzed.
Results: Mean TNSS did not significantly change from baseline in either group (placebo n=29, SCIT n=28). There was no significant difference in the change in mean TNSS between placebo and SCIT [−0.79±0.35 vs. −1.02±0.37, respectively, difference=0.2(−1.15, 0.70), p=0.63]. Baseline CRsIgE and CRsIgG4 didn’t differ between groups. Mean CRsIgE decreased in both groups following treatment: 3.6 to 2.3 kU/L (0.64 fold change), p=0.015 and 8.3 to 4.2 kU/L (0.51 fold change), p<0.001 in placebo and SCIT respectively, but did not differ between groups [p=0.33]. Significant increases in CRsIgG4 post-treatment were observed among SCIT recipients only: 0.07 to 12.3 mg/L (176 fold change), p<0.001.
Conclusions: Cockroach SCIT increased CRsIgG4 levels but did not significantly alter NAC-induced TNSS responses. The extent to which NAC in these children may reflect clinical efficacy for rhinitis or asthma is uncertain.