Procedural Time and Outcomes of Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

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The American journal of cardiology


Chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) can be lengthy procedures. We sought to investigate the effect of procedural time on CTO PCI outcomes. We examined the procedural time required for the various steps of CTO PCI in 6,442 CTO PCIs at 40 US and non-US centers between 2012 and 2022. The mean and median procedure times were 129 ± 76 and 112 minutes, respectively, with no significant change over time. The median times from access to wire insertion, guidewire manipulation time, and post crossing were 20, 32, and 53 minutes, respectively. Lesions crossed in <30 minutes were less complex, as reflected by lower Japanese CTO score (1.89 ± 1.19, p <0.001) than lesions that were not successfully crossed (2.88 ± 1.22) and lesions that were crossed in ≥30 minutes (2.85 ± 1.13). The likelihood of successful crossing if crossing was not achieved after 30, 90, and 180 minutes were a 76.7%, 60.7%, and 42.7%, respectively. The parameters independently associated with ≥30 minutes guidewire manipulation time in patients with a primary antegrade approach included left anterior descending target vessel, proximal cap ambiguity, blunt/no stump, occlusion length, previous failed attempt, medium/severe calcification, and medium/severe tortuosity. The mean duration of CTO PCI is approximately 2 hours (∼20% of time for access to wire insertion, ∼30% wire manipulation time, and ∼50% postwiring time). Guidewire crossing time was shorter in less complex lesions and in cases without complications.

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Humans; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Treatment Outcome; Coronary Occlusion; Time Factors; Calcinosis; Chronic Disease; Coronary Angiography; Registries

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