Persistent and Recurrent Device-Related Thrombus After Left Atrial Appendage Closure: Incidence, Predictors, and Outcomes

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JACC Cardiovasc Interv


BACKGROUND: Scarce data exist on the evolution of device-related thrombus (DRT) after left atrial appendage closure (LAAC).

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of persistent and recurrent DRT in LAAC recipients.

METHODS: Data were obtained from an international multicenter registry including 237 patients diagnosed with DRT after LAAC. Of these, 214 patients with a subsequent imaging examination after the initial diagnosis of DRT were included. Unfavorable evolution of DRT was defined as either persisting or recurrent DRT.

RESULTS: DRT resolved in 153 (71.5%) cases and persisted in 61 (28.5%) cases. Larger DRT size (OR per 1-mm increase: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.15; P = 0.009) and female (OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.12-5.26; P = 0.02) were independently associated with persistent DRT. After DRT resolution, 82 (53.6%) of 153 patients had repeated device imaging, with 14 (17.1%) cases diagnosed with recurrent DRT. Overall, 75 (35.0%) patients had unfavorable evolution of DRT, and the sole predictor was average thrombus size at initial diagnosis (OR per 1-mm increase: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.16; P = 0.003), with an optimal cutoff size of 7 mm (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.39-4.52; P = 0.002). Unfavorable evolution of DRT was associated with a higher rate of thromboembolic events compared with resolved DRT (26.7% vs 15.1%; HR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.15-3.94; P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: About one-third of DRT events had an unfavorable evolution (either persisting or recurring), with a larger initial thrombus size (particularly >7 mm) portending an increased risk. Unfavorable evolution of DRT was associated with a 2-fold higher risk of thromboembolic events compared with resolved DRT.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Female; Incidence; Atrial Appendage; Treatment Outcome; Atrial Fibrillation; Thromboembolism; Thrombosis; Stroke

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