Equipment entrapment/loss during chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention

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The Journal of invasive cardiology


BACKGROUND: There is limited data on equipment loss or entrapment during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

METHODS: We analyzed the baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics and outcomes of equipment loss/entrapment at 43 US and non-US centers between 2017 and 2023.

RESULTS: Equipment loss/entrapment was reported in 40 (0.4%) of 10 719 cases during the study period. These included guidewire entrapment/fracture (n = 21), microcatheter entrapment/fracture (n = 11), stent loss (n = 8) and balloon entrapment/fracture/rupture (n = 5). The equipment loss/entrapment cases were more likely to have moderate to severe calcification, longer lesion length, higher J-CTO and PROGRESS-CTO complications scores, and use of the retrograde approach compared with the remaining cases. Retrieval was attempted in 71.4% of the guidewire, 90.9% of the microcatheter, 100% of the stent loss, and 100% of the balloon cases, and was successful in 26.7%, 30.0%, 50%, and 40% of the cases, respectively. Procedures complicated by equipment loss/entrapment had higher procedure and fluoroscopy time, contrast volume and patient air kerma radiation dose, lower procedural (60.0% vs 85.6%, P less than .001) and technical (75.0% vs 86.8%, P = .05) success, and higher incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (17.5% vs 1.8%, P less than .001), acute MI (7.5% vs 0.4%, P less than .001), emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) (2.5% vs 0.1%, P = .03), perforation (20.0% vs 4.9%, P less than .001), and death (7.5% vs 0.4%, P less than .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Equipment loss is a rare complication of CTO PCI; it is more common in complex CTOs and is associated with lower technical success and higher MACE.

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ePub ahead of print