Risk Factors Associated With Severe Hypoglycemia in Older Adults With Type 1 Diabetes
Weinstock RS, DuBose SN, Bergenstal RM, Chaytor NS, Peterson C, Olson BA, Munshi MN, Perrin AJ, Miller KM, Beck RW, Liljenquist DR, Aleppo G, Buse JB, Kruger D, Bhargava A, Goland RS, Edelen RC, Pratley RE, Peters AL, Rodriguez H, Ahmann AJ, Lock JP, Garg SK, Rickels MR, and Hirsch IB. Risk factors associated with severe hypoglycemia in older adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2015; 39(4):603-610.
OBJECTIVE: Severe hypoglycemia is common in older adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes, but little is known about factors associated with its occurrence.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at 18 diabetes centers in the T1D Exchange Clinic Network. Participants were ≥60 years old with type 1 diabetes for ≥20 years. Case subjects (n = 101) had at least one severe hypoglycemic event in the prior 12 months. Control subjects (n = 100), frequency-matched to case subjects by age, had no severe hypoglycemia in the prior 3 years. Data were analyzed for cognitive and functional abilities, social support, depression, hypoglycemia unawareness, various aspects of diabetes management, C-peptide level, glycated hemoglobin level, and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics.
RESULTS: Glycated hemoglobin (mean 7.8% vs. 7.7%) and CGM-measured mean glucose (175 vs. 175 mg/dL) were similar between case and control subjects. More case than control subjects had hypoglycemia unawareness: only 11% of case subjects compared with 43% of control subjects reported always having symptoms associated with low blood glucose levels (P < 0.001). Case subjects had greater glucose variability than control subjects (P = 0.008) and experienced CGM glucose levels
CONCLUSIONS: In older adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes, greater hypoglycemia unawareness and glucose variability are associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. A study to assess interventions to prevent severe hypoglycemia in high-risk individuals is needed.
Medical Subject Headings
Aged; Blood Glucose; C-Peptide; Case-Control Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Female; Glycated Hemoglobin A; Humans; Hypoglycemia; Hypoglycemic Agents; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors