Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): elusive diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection
Ordaya EE, Jarir SA, Yoo R, and Chandrasekar PH. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH): Elusive diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Germs 2017; 7(3):149-152.
INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a clinical syndrome of hyperinflammation leading to an uncontrolled and ineffective immune response, associated with high mortality.
CASE REPORT: A 26-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 8 months in remission, was found to have HLH. Without any improvement, stem cell transplantation was considered. Then, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection was identified as cause of her HLH. With appropriate therapy for infection, HLH improved and transplantation was averted.
CONCLUSION: MAC should be included in the list of potential causes of HLH.