Outcomes of therapeutic plasma exchange in severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia hospitalizations: An analysis of the National Inpatient Sample

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BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is characterized by humoral and/or cellular immune-mediated hemolysis of red blood cells. The role of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in AIHA is unclear.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We queried the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for 2002-2019 to identify hospitalizations with the primary diagnosis of AIHA. We included hospitalizations with the highest severity subclass identified by All Patient Refined Disease Related Group (APR-DRG). We used multivariate regression analysis to compare in-hospital mortality and other relevant in-hospital outcomes between hospitalizations that received TPE and those that did not.

RESULTS: We identified 255 weighted hospitalizations in the TPE group and 4973 in the control group. Those in the control group were older (median age 67 vs. 48 years, p < .001) and had a higher prevalence of most comorbidities. The TPE group had higher odds of all-cause in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.11). They also had higher rates of many secondary outcomes, including requiring mechanical ventilation, developing circulatory shock, acute stroke, urinary tract infections, intracranial hemorrhage, acute kidney injury, and requiring new hemodialysis. No significant differences were noted in the rates of acute myocardial infarctions, bacterial pneumonia, sepsis/septicemia, thromboembolic events, and other bleeding events. Furthermore, the TPE group had a higher median length of hospital stay (19 vs. 9 days, p < .001).

CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations with severe AIHA that received TPE had higher rates of adverse in-hospital outcomes.

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Humans; Aged; Plasma Exchange; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Inpatients; Plasmapheresis; Hospitalization

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