Beta-aminoisobutyric induces neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons
Morris DC, Cheung WL, Chopp M, Zhang T, and Zhang Z. Beta-aminoisobutyric induces neurite outgrowth in primary cortical neurons. Acad Emerg Med 2017; 24:S195.
Acad Emerg Med
Background: b-Aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a small molecule b-amino acid that is released from contracting muscle after exercise. BAIBA increases the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes in white adipocytes in both in-vivo and in-vitro models and improves glucose homeostasis. BAIBA mediates tissue crosstalk between muscle and white fat adipocytes in subcutaneous tissue and the liver suggesting that BAIBA may be a mediator of exercise induced health benefits. Since exercise is known to promote neurogenesis, we hypothesized that BAIBA may promote neurite outgrowth in our cell culture model of primary cortical neurons (PCNs). Methods: PCNs were isolated from day 17 rat embryos (n=3) and plated with DMEM media containing 20% FBS in poly-D-lysine coated plates for 5 hours. The media was then changed to Neurobasal medium and the cultures were incubated with 0, 5μM and 10μM BAIBA, respectively, for 4 days at 37°C. Microtube associated protein (MAP2) immunostaining was performed to identify and measure neurite branch lengths and number of branches using Matlab 6.5 program and ImageJ. Neurite branching was quantified by primary branching from the cell body (level 1) and secondary branching (level 2) from Level 1 branching. Results: Total length, number of neurite branches and branch lengths at levels 1 and 2, were increased in both the 5μM and 10μM BAIBA treatment groups when compared to control. The total lengths of neurites were 95.2 ± 53.7 μm,158 ± 70.3 μm, and 171.3 ± 71.6 μm while the number of branches were 4.50 ± 1.9, 6.26 ± 2.5, and 7.50 ± 3.3, respectively, in control, 5μM and 10μM BAIBA treatment groups (mean ± std) (p < 0.01). The lengths at levels 1 were 87.3 ± 46.7μm, 134.3 ± 55.6μm and 143.0 ± 61.1 μm while the lengths at level 2 were 7.8 ±12.4μm, 23.6±25.7μm and 27.4±25.2μm respectively in control, 5μM and 10μM BAIBA treatment groups (mean ± std) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: BAIBA (5μM and 10μM) treated PCNs increased both the lengths and branches of neurites when compared to control. These results demonstrate that BAIBA could potentially act as an agent to promot neurite outgrowth.