Prognostic significance of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles within the randomised, phase 3, EORTC CATNON trial on non-1p/19q deleted anaplastic glioma

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Neuro Oncol


BACKGROUND: Survival in patients with IDH1/2 mutant (mt) anaplastic astrocytomas is highly variable. We have used the prospective phase 3 CATNON trial to identify molecular factors related to outcome in IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients.

METHODS: The CATNON trial randomized 751 adult patients with newly diagnosed 1p/19q non-codeleted anaplastic glioma to 59.4 Gy radiotherapy +/- concurrent and/or adjuvant temozolomide. The presence of necrosis and/or microvascular proliferation was scored at central pathology review. Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip arrays were used for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the determination of copy number variations (CNV). Two DNA methylation-based tumour classifiers were used for risk stratification. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed using one of two glioma-tailored NGS panels. The primary endpoint was overall survival measured from date of randomization.

RESULTS: Full analysis (genome-wide DNA methylation and NGS) was successfully performed on 654 tumours. Of these, 432 tumours were IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytomas. Both epigenetic classifiers identified poor prognosis patients that partially overlapped. A predictive prognostic Cox proportional hazards model identified that independent prognostic factors for IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients included; age, mini-mental state examination score, treatment with concurrent and/or adjuvant temozolomide, the epigenetic classifiers, PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, PI3K mutations and total CNV load. Independent recursive partitioning analysis highlights the importance of these factors for patient prognostication.

CONCLUSION: Both clinical and molecular factors identify IDH1/2mt anaplastic astrocytoma patients with worse outcome. These results will further refine the current WHO criteria for glioma classification.

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ePub ahead of print