Trait- and pre-sleep-state-dependent arousal in insomnia disorders: what role may sleep reactivity and sleep-related metacognitions play? A pilot study.
Palagini L, Mauri M, Dell'Osso L, Riemann D, and Drake CL. Trait- and pre-sleep-state-dependent arousal in insomnia disorders: what role may sleep reactivity and sleep-related metacognitions play? A pilot study. Sleep Medicine 2016; 25:42-48.
OBJECTIVE: Research into the cause of chronic insomnia has identified hyperarousal as a key factor, which is likely to have both trait and state components. Sleep-related cognition, metacognition, and sleep reactivity also play an important role in insomnia. Our aim was to investigate how these insomnia-related constructs are associated with trait predisposition and pre-sleep arousal in subjects with an insomnia disorder.
METHODS: Fifty-three individuals with insomnia disorder (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (F = 33; 52 + 10)) and 30 healthy controls (F = 18; 51.8 + 12 years) were evaluated with a set of questionnaires, including the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Metacognition Questionnaire - Insomnia (MCQI), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), and Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS). Statistical analyses included multiple regression to elucidate the independent determinants of APS and PSAS.
RESULTS: Participants with insomnia presented higher FIRST, MCQI, APS, PSAS scores (p-values
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Arousal; Causality; Cognition; Depression; Female; Humans; Male; Metacognition; Middle Aged; Pilot Projects; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Stress, Psychological; Surveys and Questionnaires