Kuntz JL, Johnson E, Go A, Reynolds K, Cassidy-Bushrow A, Roblin D, Slaughter M, Nyongesa D, Petrik A, Behr S, Schlienger RG, and Smith D. Incidence of angioedema after initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in adults with heart failure. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2021; 30:255-255.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Background: Angioedema, a potentially life-threatening adverse event associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) use, occurs more often among Black patients than non-Black patients. Specific angioedema incidence rates (IRs) among heart failure (HF) patients initiating an ACEI are limited.
Objectives: To provide estimates of angioedema incidence among HF patients initiating an ACEI, particularly among Black patients.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among adult (≥18 years) patients with HF who initiated ACEI use at 5 health care delivery systems within the Cardiovascular Research Network between July 2015 and May 2019. We required patients to have ≥12 months of continuous medical and prescription drug coverage and no ACEI dispensings in the 1 year before treatment initiation. Our primary outcome was serious angioedema, defined as a primary or secondary diagnosis of ICD-9 code 995.1 (‘Angioneurotic edema not elsewhere classified’) or ICD-10 codes in the T78.3 series (‘Angioneurotic edema’) during hospitalization. Our secondary out-come was ‘any angioedema’, which included serious angioedema and non-serious angioedema that was diagnosed in the outpatient setting. We followed patients from ACEI initiation until first angioedema diagnosis or a censoring event (treatment discontinuation, initiation of another renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocking agent, disenrollment, death, or end of 365-day follow-up or study). We calculated crude IRs and exact 95% confidence intervals (CI) for angioedema among HF patients initiating an ACEI. Results: We identified 14 ,241 ACEI users, of which 6,156 (43 .2%)were women and 2,105 (15%) were self-reported Black. Mean age was 70 ± 14 years. We observed 6 serious angioedema events overall (IR: 0.8/1,000 person-years (PYs), 95% CI: 0.3-1.7), with 2 events occurring among Black patients (IR: 1.8/1,000 PYs, 95%CI: 0.2-6.5) and 4 events among non-Black patients (IR: 0.6/1,000PYs, 95% CI: 0.2-1.5). We observed 43 angioedema events overall (IR: 5.4/1,000 PYs, 95% CI: 3.9-7.3), with 21 events occurring among Black patients (IR: 19/1,000 PYs, 95% CI: 11.8-29.1) and 22 events among non-Black patients (IR: 3.2/1,000 PYs, 95%CI: 2.0-4.9).
Conclusions: Our estimate of angioedema incidence among HF patients who initiated an ACEI (5.4 events/1,000 PYs) is slightly higher than a previously published estimate (3.3/1,000 PYs) among a similarly-defined population identified through administrative claims data. Similar to prior reports, we found a higher incidence of angioedema, both serious and non-serious, among Black ACEI users than among non-black ACEI users.